Bulgaria: General Infromation

February 5, 2007 by  
Filed under News

Location – Bulgaria is situated on the Balkan Peninsula, in south-eastern Europe. It is bounded by Romania on the north, by the Black Sea on the east, by Turkey and Greece on the south, and by the Republics of Macedonia and Yugoslavia on the west

State System – Bulgaria is a parliamentary republic. It is a united and inseparable formation of one nation. The supreme organ of state power is the National Assembly (Parliament), which exercises legislative power and parliamentary control

Geographical Reference – The relief of the country is diverse, including vast lowlands, planes, low hills, high and low mountains, valleys, river basins and deep gorges…The climate of Bulgaria is generally defined as temperate continental with well expressed transition to the south of Stara Planina…The complex relief structure and the small territory of Bulgaria do not create conditions for big rivers

Flora and Fauna – Bulgaria is a land of roses, orchards laden with fruit and vines grown since the settlement of the ancient Thracians. Favorable climatic conditions and variety of relief are factors that account for the diversity of vegetation. The overall number of plant species is approximately 12 400. Forests prevail, representing nearly 27 % of the territory of the country

Religion and Holidays – The traditional religion in Bulgaria is the Eastern Orthodox creed. The conversion to Christianity took place in 864 and the foundations of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church were laid down at the Constantinople Council in 870. In the time of the Ottoman rule the Bulgarian Patriarchate passed under the jurisdiction of the Constantinople Patriarchate

Style of Life – More than half of the Bulgarian population lives in towns as a result of the intensive migration processes in the recent decades. The basic part of the inhabitants (88 %) are Bulgarians – a nationality formed through the amalgamation of Slavs, Proto-Bulgarians and Thracians…The typical Bulgarian dishes…Bulgarian white and red wines…Mineral waters

Monetary Unit – The Bulgarian monetary unit is the Bulgarian lev. Banknotes of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20 levs and coins of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50 stotinki are in circulation.

History – The geographical situation at crossroads, the favorable climate and the variety of relief are prerequisites for the interweaving of fates and routes of many tribes and peoples on the Bulgarian lands. The territory of Bulgaria was inhabited since the earliest historical ages – the Stone Age and the Stone-Copper Age

Bulgarian National Culture – In Bulgaria the foreign tourists can get acquainted with original versatile culture that represents an organic entity of various ethnocultural communities – Proto-Bulgarians, Slavs and the ancient settlers on the Balkans, mainly Thracians

Education – By way of tradition the Bulgarians have always valued highly erudition, making efforts to give their children good education. It is not surprising that towards the end of the 9th C. Knyaz Boris invited the students of the founders of the Slavonic alphabet Sts. Cyril and Methodius and they became archefounders of education in Bulgaria

Language and Alphabet – The Bulgarian language – the oldest Slavonic language in terms of written documents – belongs to the Southern group of Slavonic languages of the Indo-European language family

Literature – The Bulgarian literature is considered to be the oldest Slavonic one. Its foundations were laid in the 9th C., after the brothers Constantin-Cyril the Philosopher and Methodius created the Slavonic alphabet (Glagolitsa) and made the first translations of religious texts

Architecture – “Since the creation of the world and up to the 15th C. architecture stands out as the great book of mankind, its major means of expression… “, said Victor Hugo. The architectural heritage of Bulgarian country has written our exceptionally rich history in stone, wood and brick

Fine Arts – The Bulgarian lands are an inexhaustible treasure-trove of artistic works. Part of these are still hidden in the earth, but others, which are already in the museums, drive us thousands of years back to the culture of one of the oldest ancient European civilizations

Music – The legend of the Thracian singer Orpheus, who charmed gods with his music, tells that he was born in the Rhodopes. Bulgarian singers and musicians of today are no less famous than Orpheus. The remarkable opera-singers Boris Hristov, Nikolai Gyaurov, Nikola Gyuzelev, Raina Kabaivanska, Gena Dimitrova and many others make famous the Bulgarian school of singing on the world opera stages

Theatre – The beginning of theatre performances in Bulgaria was laid during the National Revival (the second half of the 19th C.). The first professional theatre company was formed in Plovdiv in 1883

Sports – Though a small country, Bulgaria ranges among the foremost sports nations in the world. It is one of thirteen countries constituters of the contemporary Olympic games in 1896

Tourism – The beautiful scenery, the ancient historical sites and the crossroad situation of the country between the Orient and Europe have been attracting travellers since ancient times. Travel notes left by German, Austrian and Arab authors offer a rich source of evidence for the life in the Bulgarian lands. At present Bulgaria develops as a country of tourism. Despite its comparatively small territory, the variety of treasures of nature is exceptional

Souvenirs from Bulgaria – Buying a souvenir, one can take away a memento of Bulgaria. Works of masters of traditional crafts can be found in the special shops (painted Troyan ceramics, wrought-iron and copper objects, boxes, candle-sticks, etc., wooden objects, decorated with poker-work, hand-made embroideries with folklore motifs, replicas of ancient guns and daggers, etc.)